Provides that the Secretary of HHS may award development grants to teaching health centers to establish new accredited or expanded primary care residency programs. Specifies that the grants may not be for more than 3 years in duration and may not exceed $500,000. Preference is to be given to applicants with existing affiliation(s) with an area health education center (AHEC). Authorizes to be appropriated (but does not delineate a separate Congressional appropriation) $25 million for FY 2010, $50 million for FY 2011, $50 million for FY 2012, and such sums as may be necessary for each subsequent FY. Specifies that not more than $5 million be applied annually toward the technical assistance program grants. Also appropriates such sum as may be necessary – but not to exceed $230 million – for payments for direct and indirect expenses to qualified teaching health centers for the expansion of existing or to establish new approved GME programs over the FY 2011-2015 period. With respect to the payments to qualified teaching centers, outlines certain annual reporting requirements as well as the requirement of HHS to promulgate regulations to this effect.